Procedures for Accounting and Baselines for Projects under JI and CDM


In December 2002 the European research project Procedures for Accounting and Baselines for JI and CDM projects (PROBASE) was completed. PROBASE was funded by the European Commission under the Fifth Framework Programme and its main objective was to provide recommendations to policy makers on how to operationalise baseline determination for JI and CDM projects. As a basis for its research, PROBASE identified the following steps to be taken in the GHG accounting process of JI and CDM projects:

  1. Determine the system boundary within which the project activity takes place and which comprise those emission sources that are significant and measurable and under the control of project participants,
  2. Describe what emissions would have taken place within the system boundary if the JI/CDM project had not taken place, i.e. determining a baseline scenario and consequently additionality,
  3. Identify possible knock-on effects of the project on factors outside the project boundary, which may (partly) offset the GHG emission reduction achieved within the system boundary and are therefore often referred to as leakage,
  4. Identify types of uncertainty that are related to the process of calculating GHG emission reduction and identify safeguards to reduce these uncertainties.

The final report of PROBASE can be downloaded here: pdfPROBASE_final_report.pdf3.89 MB

Project details

  • PROBASE ("Procedures for Accounting and Baselines for Projects under JI and CDM”)
  • Commissioned by: European Commission (Fifth Framework programme)
  • Duration: 2 years (January 2001 - December 2002)


  • JIN Climate and Sustainability, Groningen, Netherlands (JIN)
  • National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece (NTUA)
  • Centre for Environmental Strategy at the University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom (CES)
  • Hamburg Institute for International Economics, Germany (HWWI)
  • French-German Institute for Environmental Research, Karlsruhe, Germany (DFIU)
  • Factor Consulting + Management, Switzerland (Factor)

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